ramips: add size checks/append metadata where missing
[openwrt/openwrt.git] / docs / network.tex
1 The network configuration is stored in \texttt{/etc/config/network}
2 and is divided into interface configurations.
3 Each interface configuration either refers directly to an ethernet/wifi
4 interface (\texttt{eth0}, \texttt{wl0}, ..) or to a bridge containing multiple interfaces.
5 It looks like this:
6
7 \begin{Verbatim}
8 config interface "lan"
9 option ifname "eth0"
10 option proto "static"
11 option ipaddr "192.168.1.1"
12 option netmask "255.255.255.0"
13 option gateway "192.168.1.254"
14 option dns "192.168.1.254"
15 \end{Verbatim}
16
17 \texttt{ifname} specifies the Linux interface name.
18 If you want to use bridging on one or more interfaces, set \texttt{ifname} to a list
19 of interfaces and add:
20 \begin{Verbatim}
21 option type "bridge"
22 \end{Verbatim}
23
24 It is possible to use VLAN tagging on an interface simply by adding the VLAN IDs
25 to it, e.g. \texttt{eth0.15}. These can be nested as well. See the switch section for
26 this.
27
28 \begin{Verbatim}
29 config interface
30 option ifname "eth0.15"
31 option proto "none"
32 \end{Verbatim}
33
34 This sets up a simple static configuration for \texttt{eth0}. \texttt{proto} specifies the
35 protocol used for the interface. The default image usually provides \texttt{'none'}
36 \texttt{'static'}, \texttt{'dhcp'} and \texttt{'pppoe'}. Others can be added by installing additional
37 packages.
38
39 When using the \texttt{'static'} method like in the example, the options \texttt{ipaddr} and
40 \texttt{netmask} are mandatory, while \texttt{gateway} and \texttt{dns} are optional.
41 You can specify more than one DNS server, separated with spaces:
42
43 \begin{Verbatim}
44 config interface "lan"
45 option ifname "eth0"
46 option proto "static"
47 ...
48 option dns "192.168.1.254 192.168.1.253" (optional)
49 \end{Verbatim}
50
51 DHCP currently only accepts \texttt{ipaddr} (IP address to request from the server)
52 and \texttt{hostname} (client hostname identify as) - both are optional.
53
54 \begin{Verbatim}
55 config interface "lan"
56 option ifname "eth0"
57 option proto "dhcp"
58 option ipaddr "192.168.1.1" (optional)
59 option hostname "openwrt" (optional)
60 \end{Verbatim}
61
62 PPP based protocols (\texttt{pppoe}, \texttt{pptp}, ...) accept these options:
63 \begin{itemize}
64 \item{username} \\
65 The PPP username (usually with PAP authentication)
66 \item{password} \\
67 The PPP password
68 \item{keepalive} \\
69 Ping the PPP server (using LCP). The value of this option
70 specifies the maximum number of failed pings before reconnecting.
71 The ping interval defaults to 5, but can be changed by appending
72 ",<interval>" to the keepalive value
73 \item{demand} \\
74 Use Dial on Demand (value specifies the maximum idle time.
75 \item{server: (pptp)} \\
76 The remote pptp server IP
77 \end{itemize}
78
79 For all protocol types, you can also specify the MTU by using the \texttt{mtu} option.
80 A sample PPPoE config would look like this:
81
82 \begin{Verbatim}
83 config interface "lan"
84 option ifname "eth0"
85 option proto "pppoe"
86 option username "username"
87 option password "openwrt"
88 option mtu "1492" (optional)
89 \end{Verbatim}
90
91 \subsubsection{Setting up static routes}
92
93 You can set up static routes for a specific interface that will be brought up
94 after the interface is configured.
95
96 Simply add a config section like this:
97
98 \begin{Verbatim}
99 config route foo
100 option interface "lan"
101 option target "1.1.1.0"
102 option netmask "255.255.255.0"
103 option gateway "192.168.1.1"
104 \end{Verbatim}
105
106 The name for the route section is optional, the \texttt{interface}, \texttt{target} and
107 \texttt{gateway} options are mandatory.
108 Leaving out the \texttt{netmask} option will turn the route into a host route.
109
110 \subsubsection{Setting up the switch (broadcom only)}
111
112 The switch configuration is set by adding a \texttt{'switch'} config section.
113 Example:
114
115 \begin{Verbatim}
116 config switch "eth0"
117 option vlan0 "1 2 3 4 5*"
118 option vlan1 "0 5"
119 \end{Verbatim}
120
121 On Broadcom hardware the section name needs to be eth0, as the switch driver
122 does not detect the switch on any other physical device.
123 Every vlan option needs to have the name vlan<n> where <n> is the VLAN number
124 as used in the switch driver.
125 As value it takes a list of ports with these optional suffixes:
126
127 \begin{itemize}
128 \item{\texttt{'*'}:}
129 Set the default VLAN (PVID) of the Port to the current VLAN
130 \item{\texttt{'u'}:}
131 Force the port to be untagged
132 \item{\texttt{'t'}:}
133 Force the port to be tagged
134 \end{itemize}
135
136 The CPU port defaults to tagged, all other ports to untagged.
137 On Broadcom hardware the CPU port is always 5. The other ports may vary with
138 different hardware.
139
140 For instance, if you wish to have 3 vlans, like one 3-port switch, 1 port in a
141 DMZ, and another one as your WAN interface, use the following configuration :
142
143 \begin{Verbatim}
144 config switch "eth0"
145 option vlan0 "1 2 3 5*"
146 option vlan1 "0 5"
147 option vlan2 "4 5"
148 \end{Verbatim}
149
150 Three interfaces will be automatically created using this switch layout :
151 \texttt{eth0.0} (vlan0), \texttt{eth0.1} (vlan1) and \texttt{eth0.2} (vlan2).
152 You can then assign those interfaces to a custom network configuration name
153 like \texttt{lan}, \texttt{wan} or \texttt{dmz} for instance.
154
155 \subsubsection{Setting up the switch (swconfig)}
156
157 \emph{swconfig} based configurations have a different structure with one extra
158 section per vlan. The example below shows a typical configuration:
159
160 \begin{Verbatim}
161 config 'switch' 'eth0'
162 option 'reset' '1'
163 option 'enable_vlan' '1'
164
165 config 'switch_vlan' 'eth0_1'
166 option 'device' 'eth0'
167 option 'vlan' '1'
168 option 'ports' '0 1 2 3 5t'
169
170 config 'switch_vlan' 'eth0_2'
171 option 'device' 'eth0'
172 option 'vlan' '2'
173 option 'ports' '4 5t'
174 \end{Verbatim}
175
176 \subsubsection{Setting up IPv6 connectivity}
177
178 OpenWrt supports IPv6 connectivity using PPP, Tunnel brokers or static
179 assignment.
180
181 If you use PPP, IPv6 will be setup using IP6CP and there is nothing to
182 configure.
183
184 To setup an IPv6 tunnel to a tunnel broker, you can install the
185 \texttt{6scripts} package and edit the \texttt{/etc/config/6tunnel}
186 file and change the settings accordingly :
187
188 \begin{Verbatim}
189 config 6tunnel
190 option tnlifname 'sixbone'
191 option remoteip4 '1.0.0.1'
192 option localip4 '1.0.0.2'
193 option localip6 '2001::DEAD::BEEF::1'
194 \end{Verbatim}
195
196 \begin{itemize}
197 \item{\texttt{'tnlifname'}:}
198 Set the interface name of the IPv6 in IPv4 tunnel
199 \item{\texttt{'remoteip4'}:}
200 IP address of the remote end to establish the 6in4 tunnel.
201 This address is given by the tunnel broker
202 \item{\texttt{'localip4'}:}
203 IP address of your router to establish the 6in4 tunnel.
204 It will usually match your WAN IP address.
205 \item{\texttt{'localip6'}:}
206 IPv6 address to setup on your tunnel side
207 This address is given by the tunnel broker
208 \end{itemize}
209
210 Using the same package you can also setup an IPv6 bridged connection:
211
212 \begin{Verbatim}
213 config 6bridge
214 option bridge 'br6'
215 \end{Verbatim}
216
217 By default the script bridges the WAN interface with the LAN interface
218 and uses ebtables to filter anything that is not IPv6 on the bridge.
219 This configuration is particularly useful if your router is not
220 IPv6 ND proxy capable (see: http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=4389).
221
222 IPv6 static addressing is also supported using a similar setup as
223 IPv4 but with the \texttt{ip6} prefixing (when applicable).
224
225 \begin{Verbatim}
226 config interface "lan"
227 option ifname "eth0"
228 option proto "static"
229 option ip6addr "fe80::200:ff:fe00:0/64"
230 option ip6gw "2001::DEAF:BEE:1"
231 \end{Verbatim}